A Study of Push Hands by Xiang Kairen

People who practice Taijiquan all know that practicing the form is the "body" (ti), practicing push-hands is the "use" (yong). But are body and usage two different affairs? In order to answer this question, we must first clarify what is body: what is usage? Practicing the form, one never departs from the "13 Postures"; practicing the usage one also never departs from the "13 Postures." Without the 13 Postures there is neither Taijiquan nor push-hands. The 13 Postures are peng (ward-off), lu (roll-back), ji (press), an (push), cai (pull-down), lie (split), jou (elbow), kao (shoulder stroke), jin (advance), tui (retreat), gu (look left), pan (look right) and ding (central equilibrium). This is a saying well known by all. But when the average individual practices Taijiquan or push-hands, does he pay attention to each of these thirteen postures? Naturally there are some who know that they must pay attention to this; but there are also many who imitate mindlessly.

I dare say that even among those who practice the thirteen postures assiduously, there are those who practice the form but cannot "get it" or who practice the usage but cannot grasp the usage. Because of this the "Song of the Thirteen Postures" says, "If you don't diligently search for the meaning, you will only waste your effort and sigh (from disappointment)." Practicing the form is equivalent to understanding the essence of push-hands usage. Practicing the push-hands one utilizes applications attained from form practice. We can say that the entire body (or form) is functional and that the entire function (all applications) has a body. Accordingly, is there no difference between practicing form and push-hands? Yes, there is a distinction. Below, I will record what ancient Taijiquan theoreticians have written regarding push-hands. After presenting my interpretations, we shall draw some conclusions. And finally, I will present research gleaned through my personal experience in push-hands. The Taijiquan Classic says, "When the opponent is hard and I am soft, this is called zhou (yielding, moving away). When I follow harmoniously and the opponent gets backed up, this is called can (adhering)." "Hard" has the significance of an attack.

But this should not be a hardness that is forceful or stiff. Rather, a good example would be the attacking movements of ward-off or press as used in push-hands. "Soft" has the significance of protecting, guarding or conserving (shou). But this should not be a softness that is weak or limp. Rather, a good example would be the defensive movements of roll-back or push as used in push-hands. Although "hard" and "soft" are nouns which stand in opposition as attack and defense, one should completely rely on Yi (intention, mindfulness, inner meaning) and posture. One should never use stiff, forceful energy to attack.

If the opponent uses ward-off or press to attack and oppress me, I should use the defensive movements of roll-back and push to neutralize him. This kind of movement is called Zhou (moving away). "Following harmoniously" and "getting backed up" reveal the difference between maintaining or losing the stance. "Following harmoniously" means the ability to keep the center of gravity and thus maintain the posture. "Getting backed up" means losing the center of gravity and thus losing the posture. An example would be my using ward-off or press to attack, intending to cause my opponent to lose his stance. It is also said, "If the opponent moves quickly I must respond quickly; if the opponent moves slowly, then respond slowly." This is a very pure way of speaking about defense.

Scholars should not mistakenly believe that one is thus losing control. Slowness or speed follows the attacker. You should understand that the attack depends on the opponent, the response depends on oneself. If I can follow the speed of the attacker, then I can respond naturally and easily, not losing the center. One could say that this is the ultimate in Taiji push-hands skill.

It is also said, "If pressured on the left, empty the left; if pressured on the right, empty the right." Taijiquan is thus a way of exercising the central pivot (or moving like the axle of a wheel). Therefore the Explanation of Practice says, "The body is like a wheel; the waist is the axle." Since the body is like a wheel, if there is pressure on the left, turn to the left. If there is pressure on the right, turn to the right.

This is natural law. But if you want skillful practice, the hands responding as the mind wishes--this is not a very easy matter. It is also said, "Looking up, he seems even higher. Looking down, he seems even deeper. Advancing, he is even further away. Retreating, he is even closer." The meaning of the first three sentences is that one leads the opponent's force so that it comes upon emptiness. That is to say, if he attacks upwards, I lead him even higher. If he attacks down, I lead him even lower. If he attacks straight in, I lead him further. In each case, I follow his incoming posture and direct him to an empty place. I neither struggle nor oppose. The fourth sentence explains the inability to retreat (from a Taiji boxer). If the opponent advances and I retreat, I crowd myself into a corner.

No matter whether one practices the form or push-hands, one should avoid straight advance or straight retreat. The Explanation of Practice says, "Advancing and retreating require turning the body and changing the steps." The meaning is that one must not linearly advance or linearly retreat. For instance, in the advancing motion of "Brush Knee Twist Step", you must look to the left and right. Or in the retreating motion of "Repulse Monkey", you must similarly turn and step towards the left and right. All of the other advancing and retreating movements are like this. Because turning and changing allow you to use the retreat as an advance, it is not a true retreat.

A true retreat would mean defeat. Therefore the ancient boxing treatises say, "Advancing is advancing. Retreating is also advancing," In the Newly Written Annals of Service it is said, "Every step advances forwards; then you are without peer under heaven." There is also a saying, "A feather cannot be added, a fly cannot alight." That is to say, push-hands must be practiced with completely refined and acute sensitivity. Then even if a feather or something as light as a fly falls on the body, it will be felt. But one does not allow the feather to stop or the fly to rest its feet. The feather cannot stop because it does not arrive at a flat or stable surface, For the same reason, the fly cannot stand balanced; it will not stop its fluttering wings and alight on the body. This is an extreme way of describing the light agility of Taiji push-hands. The meaning is absolutely do not allow the opponent to make use of your force (whether applying strength to you or "borrowing" strength from you). This is the most important and basic theory of push-hands. It is also said, "People do not know me. I alone know others." This is the realm of ultimate accomplishment in push-hands. In order to apply push-hands techniques, it is important to train the sensitivity. In technical terms this is called ting jing, "listening to energy". That is, use the two hands, especially the tips of the fingers, to feel the path and intention of the opponent's movements. Then I will be able to anticipate the opponent no matter where he moves he will have no time to defend.

Chen Xin, a writer from Chen Village (Henan Province, Wenxian County), has an excellent way of speaking about push-hands in his Taijiquan treatises: "My spirit allows me to know what is coming. My wisdom allows me to hide the attack." "Spirit" simply means using the nerves of the hands to feel the posture that the opponent is about to manifest. Then, according to my own wise strategy, I conceal an attack. In this way we arrive at the realm of "People do not know me. I alone know others." There is another saying, "If you are single weighted, then you can be responsive. If you are double weighted, then you are stagnant." In the practice of push-hands, it is most important to pay attention to these two sentences. You must at all times, in every moment, use your practical experience to really understand this. If you don't know this theory, then you cannot say that you know Taijiquan; you have only had a superficial impression. And if you don't spend several years in diligent practice of push-hands, you cannot speak of "applying technique according to circumstance". The interpretation of these two sentences is actually just common-sense and very easy to comprehend. Above, we have said, "The body is like a wheel. The waist is like the axle." Consider a wheel resting on the ground. Where can there be two heavy places? If there are two, then it cannot move, Therefore the Taijiquan Treatise says, "Do not allow any breaks or deficiencies; do not allow hollows or projections." The reason is that if there are breaks or deficiencies, hollows or projections, then you cannot be circular. And if you are not circular, then you will be double weighted.

Some people explain double weighted as both feet touching the ground at the same time or both hands striking at the same time. Thus, one hand and one foot means single weighted. This explanation is the worst kind of misunderstanding. We should understand that single weighted or double-weighted is not a matter of outer appearance but of the inside. Taijiquan is only the exercise of a central pivot. When you have found where this pivot is located, then your feeling will become spherical and every place will be single weighted, If you do not find the center of gravity, then your feeling will become stagnant and every place will be double-weighted. And it is not only the feet and hands--even one finger will be double weighted,

Chen Xin's Boxing Treatise says it best, "When your practice is most refined, even the smallest place is circular" Every sphere has its center. Within the sphere that issues from this central pivot, there are no breaks, deficiencies, hollows or projections. So where can there be double weighting? There is a saying, "Adhering is moving away. Moving away is adhering." The term "Taiji" actually means the center of a circle, where the outer portion is called yang and the inner portion yin [that is, outside the circle and inside the circle]. Yang is applied by adhering and attacking. Yin is applied by moving away and defending. Furthermore, adhering is preparation for moving away. and moving away is preparation for adhering. Thus, we can continue, "Yin does not depart from yang; yang does not depart from yin." It can also be said, "Yin and yang balance each other; this is known as "comprehending energy" (dong jing). What is called "yin and yang, adhering, moving away, hard and soft, following" and so on are all words referring to attacking and defensive movements. Within the attack, there is defense, and within defense, there is an attack. For this reason, we speak of "mutual balance". Recognizing this principle is equivalent to "comprehending energy".

If we practice our kung-fu with comprehending energy" as the base, then the more we practice, the more refined we become. A further saying is, "Originally, this is giving up yourself and following others. But many people mistakenly avoid the near and seek the far." In Taiji push-hands we respond according to circumstance. There should not be the slightest bit of preconceived strategy. This is precisely what is called "giving up yourself and following others." One could also say that only if we reach the stage of "lively circularity, light agility" can we utilize adhering and moving away--without obstruction or difficulty.

However, there are some practitioners who take "giving up yourself and following others" as meaning that one should study the opponent's method of attack and accordingly prepare a response. Now, this is "avoiding the near and seeking the far".

The examples given above are all based on the theories of push-hands presented in Wang Zongyue's Taijiquan Classic. These are the highest, deepest and most accurate principles. Without careful study of the above, it is not possible to have any push-hands accomplishment. In the Mental Elucidation of the Thirteen Postures , it is said, "In order to issue power, you must sink and relax and be concentrated in one direction." In order to understand "issuing power" you must practice "issuing power" and the other kinds of jing [methods of applying energy] while pushing hands. Then you will find out how to "sink" and how to "relax". Furthermore, you must be able to sink and relax in order to have internal strength. Your strength should not be awkward or muddled. The phrase "be concentrated in one direction" looks very simple, but actually, this embraces the concepts of time, place and direction. If one of these is not in harmony, then the inner feeling of sinking and relaxing will not be crisp. Because of this, while pushing-hands, you must on the one hand be prepared to receive the opponent's power, without either moving away or neutralizing. On the other hand, the mind should be concentrated and ready to issue power according to the Taiji principles. As you become familiar with this practice, you will be able to discharge the opponent as soon as he touches you. Your power will be centered and stable.

The Song of Push-Hands says, "In ward-off, roll-back, press, and push you must find the real technique. If upper and lower are coordinated, the opponent will not be able to advance." In the movements of ward-off, roll-back, press and push, you can find the straight within the curved (or circular). These four movements embrace nine others: pull-down, split, elbow, shoulder stroke, advance, retreat, look left, gaze right, and central equilibrium. Thus when the text says to be conscientious in the practice of ward-off, roll-back, press and push, this is equivalent to saying that one should be conscientious in applying all thirteen postures.

The first sentence in the Song of the Thirteen Postures says, "'The thirteen postures should not be regarded lightly." The meaning is that you should find the real technique in each and every posture. If movements can be controlled by the waist, then upper and lower will naturally coordinate. And if these can coordinate then you will be able to neutralize the opponent's attack. Thus, the text-says, "The opponent will find it difficult to advance." The second sentence in the Song of the Thirteen Postures--"The source of life is in the waist." has the same significance.

It is said, "Lure the opponent's advance into emptiness; harmonize with him, then issue power. Adhere, join, stick to and follow the opponent, without letting go or resisting," [that is, follow the opponent on both the vertical and horizontal planes]

Follow the opponent's incoming posture and lead him into emptiness. As I lead him in, I issue my own attack. The word "lead" actually has two meanings. The first is to accord with the opponent's posture and draw him further in order to take advantage [of his momentum]. The second is to feign weakness, causing him to rush in brashly. We read in Chen Xin's Boxing Treatise, "Entice the opponent with an 'empty basket'; then just make one turn." Enticing with an empty basket is the same as "Lure the opponent's advance into emptiness." " Turning" means striking the opponent.

The older generation says, "People who practice push-hands live according to the principle of 'neither let go nor resist'." Not letting go means not quitting the opponent's hand. Not resisting means not opposing him. This concept includes adhering and joining on a vertical plane, as well as horizontal sticking and following. Adhering motions belong to the category of "not letting go". Following and joining motions belong to the category of "not resisting". That is to say, when the opponent advances, I follow and join his motion. And if he retreats I adhere to him.

Although the Song of Pushing-Hands presents extremely simple and basic theories, if you have not had direct contact with a teacher or heard his oral transmission, then your understanding is like "theorizing with a map" [with no knowledge of the actual territory]. Even ten thousand words would be of no avail. Therefore the Song of the Thirteen Postures has, "To enter the gate and be guided on the path requires verbal instruction. If you practice your kung-fu without cease, then you can cultivate correct methods on your own." What does the text mean when it speaks of "cultivating correct methods on your own"? Just follow the principles presented above and you can cultivate on your own. Without these principles, effort is wasted. In the Boxing Classic written by Li Changlo of Ping Jing, it is said, "Studying but not practicing is to cheapen the teacher's transmission. But to practice without principles is to become sick from one's art." It is obvious that to practice push-hands one must attach great importance to this rule.

What I have written above are the most popular and familiar theories known by those who love to practice Taijiquan, with the addition of some simple explanations. Since my knowledge does have its limits, some of my explanations might not be as precise as I should like. However, I am willing to make this guarantee to all my colleagues: there is not one word that has not been personally transmitted by a famous master. I have only added what I have gained through thirty years of practical study. Now I will summarize my experiences and present a simple survey. This can serve as a reference for all who enjoy push-hands.

Why do those of us who practice Taijiquan have to practice push-hands? This is a very easy question to answer. It is because the practical usage and value of the hundred or more movements in Taijiquan can all be comprehended from push-hands. But we should recognize that push-hands is not the same as fighting, nor is it equivalent to the paired boxing sets found in other styles of martial arts. One should absolutely refrain from grappling as well as pushing and striking techniques from other systems.

Push-hands methods can be divided into four categories: 1. single-hand, fixed step, 2. double- hand, fixed step, 3. moving step (nine palaces step), 4. Da Lu (pulling) [or more literally, "large rollback". TWC]. The single-hand, fixed step pushing method is now rarely practiced. But speaking truthfully, single-hand pushing is a necessity for beginners. Although the method is simple--two people both using a single hand, one adhering the other moving away-- it is of great help in beginning to "listen to energy" and increasing the strength of the waist and legs.

Nowadays two-hand, fixed-step push-hands is popular. The theories about push-hands presented above all pertain to this style. This method of pushing is the basic practice for increasing one's skill. To realize the practical usage of Taijiquan you must lay a strong foundation in this kind of push-hands. As a beginner "entering the gate" of study, you must search for a way of unifying upper and lower. You must make sure that advancing, retreating and all turning movements are rounded and lively, movements must not be performed quickly. As you advance, you study ward-off, roll-back, press and push. "When you adhere, I move away. When I adhere, you move away." In all of this, you should not move too quickly. If there is too much speed, then your adhering and moving away are not grounded, and it will be easy to overlook the real meaning of each move. Furthermore, as you search for and listen to the opponent's energy, your responses will not match the circumstances.

The four points listed below are the most important principles for developing the "knack" of push-hands: 1. Slowness: Whether adhering or moving away, you must be searching for, listening to the opponent's energy at each step of the way (whether the opponent moves an inch or a foot). You must not disregard any part of your interaction. 2. Circularity: It is most important to prevent your hands from forming right angles (whether in your own posture, or in relation to the opponent). You must in all places maintain the circular form. 3. Stability: In fixed-step push-hands, you are allowed to alternate which leg is in front, but you are not allowed to step away. This is because the purpose of push-hands is to make the legs and waist a strong foundation. If the opponent oppresses you, you must be able to use leg power (literally, "sitting the legs" or "dropping into the legs") and the turning of the waist to neutralize his posture. As you become accustomed to this, the waist and legs will naturally have kung-fu. 4. Closeness: Whenever you search for and listen to the opponent's energy (applying leg and waist kung-fu), you must stay close in for your movements to be effective.

Now we come to moving-step push-hands: Advancing two steps, retreating two steps--neither partner changes direction. I advance a step with ward-off and then advance a step with press. My partner takes a step back with roll-back and then another retreating step with push. The process is repeated over and over. The advancing and retreating must be light and nimble. However, you will only be able to apply the power of your legs and waist if you are certain not to change direction.

Finally, we have Da Lu, "big roll-back": Advance four steps, retreat four steps. Each person advances and retreats towards the four corners. I advance a step with ward-off, another step with elbow, a further step with press and a final, close step with shoulder-stroke. My partner rolls-back with three retreating steps. Then he turns his body, stepping behind me. This last step embraces the movements of pull-down, split and push. Because there are three retreating steps utilizing roll-back, the exercise is called "big roll-back".

No matter what push-hands method you practice, it is most important not to neglect the principles and not to use force in attack and defense. Furthermore, you should have absolutely no thought of win or loss. Above, I have brought together what various authors have had to say about push-hands. Although each school has its unique teaching, there is no sense of ambiguity. You may have the impression that in order to have a correct understanding, we practitioners and students of push-hands need deep insight and penetrating research. Actually, this is not the case!

We only need to decide upon one exposition of theory and then devote our effort to really understanding it. When we have thoroughly understood one section, then all the rest will be understood at the same time. If you are persevering, you may suddenly come to a comprehension of this principle. For instance, if you have a house with several doors through which you can enter or leave, anyone who wants to enter the house only has to go through one door. Although only one door is needed, if you don't reach this door, you will never have a way to enter the house. We should also understand that among these doors there is no distinction with regard to high or low, good or bad. From the east, we enter the eastern door. From the west, we enter the western door. Each person enters the one he is closest to. Studying theory is just the same. We just have to decide upon which theory is closest, which one is easiest to grasp and then devote our effort and research there. There is only one essential--it is like a hunting dog chasing its prey. As soon as the dog decides upon his object, he does not quit until he has it.


In 1923 I began the study of Taijiquan from Chen Weiming in Shanghai. Master Chen and his own teacher, Yang Chengfu were just the same. They loved to use ward-off and press to advance and attack. However, they didn't issue power. They just forced me into a posture where I was stuck and completely without strength. I was neither able to move out of the way nor neutralize. This stage was the hardest to bear as a beginning student of push-hands.

Later Master Wang Ruen arrived in Shanghai. I studied Wu Style form with him. When I tried to use the ward-off and press techniques that I had learned from Master Chen, Master Wang was able to nullify my attacks very easily. The result of my study was a realization that my sensitivity was very dull. Master Wang could use his postures to attack as he wished, keeping extremely light and spirited. I would wait until my strength was exhausted. Having already lost my center of gravity, I could neither move out of the way nor neutralize.

I asked Master Wang, "How would Wu Jianquan attack while pushing hands?" He said, "When Master Wu would push-hands he very rarely attacked. However if you tried to oppress him, then he would always force you into a position of being without strength and unable to defend. Because of this most people say that Yang emphasizes discharging power; Wu emphasizes neutralizing. But actually, discharging is neutralizing. If you cannot neutralize, then you are unable to discharge, However, the personalities of these two individuals are different, and their methods differ accordingly."

In 1929 I studied push-hands from Xu Yusheng in Beijing. He had learned his Taijiquan from Song Siming. This was the lineage of Song Yuanchiao. Master Xu paid special attention to opening and closing techniques and matched movements with his breath. He analyzed each of the movements according to the Thirteen Postures, and paid special attention to "central equilibrium" as the mother of the Thirteen Postures. All postures issue from "central equilibrium." He also paid attention to five words mentioned in the boxing manuals: " perseverance, diligence, daring, energy and appropriateness". He said that "appropriateness" was the most important. The meaning is to find an appropriate usage for each movement. Thus Master Xu had the best ability to make use of each kind of movement in the form during his push-hands. Unfortunately, at that time he was director of both the Beijing Martial Arts Hall and the Beijing School of Physical Education. He was too busy with work and was unable to spend much time with me discussing technique. He introduced me to master Liu Ennuan, who taught me push-hands.

Master Liu had also learned his Taijiquan from Song Siming. However, his pushing method was different from that of all the masters mentioned above. He would be suddenly light, suddenly heavy, suddenly distant, suddenly near. In each case, I was unable to follow or adhere. Sometimes he would suddenly lift up, and even my heels would be lifted off the ground. Suddenly releasing, I would fall ahead into the void. After three months, I gradually became accustomed to this and was no longer seduced by his technique. In the past, I had studied external boxing; sometimes I would get aggravated by Master Liu's attack and use external boxing methods to strike. He would immediately stop pushing and say, "Push-hands is a method of training; it is not fighting. Your mind must not be struggling with the thoughts of winning or losing. If we were comparing our abilities in competition, then our postures would not be the same. There would be no principle of standing without moving or waiting for your partner to attack.

When I heard these words, I was very ashamed. I had a deep sense that, while pushing hands, I should harbor no thought of winning or losing. Not abiding by the rules and trying to steal a hit is what martial artists call "breaking tradition." In social intercourse, my actions would be called "lack of courtesy". Essentially I was being immoral.

In 1934 I was in Changsha pushing hands with a classmate. Wang Ruen was watching from the side. Suddenly he said, "How is it that there is no opening or closing in your push-hands?" I quickly stopped and asked, "When you taught me push-hands you never spoke of opening and closing. Teach us, where should we look for this opening and closing?" He said, "Don't the Boxing Treatises say that if you can open and close, then you can breathe, and if you can breathe then you will be spirited and lively? You should have discovered this principle yourself." I said, "A long time ago I suspected that I didn't really comprehend those two words. What is the meaning of "if you can open and close, then you can breathe"? Being unable to breathe, isn't that the same as being dead?"

Master Wang laughingly replied, "I am afraid you really don't understand! Everybody breathes. This is the breath of the natural person, but it is not the breath of an artist. If an artist cannot synchronize his breathing, then he feels like he cannot breathe at all. This is extremely important. When you read books praising demonstrations by martial artists, there are always two expressions used, 'The face does not change color and 'The breath is not panting.' Just now as you were practicing push-hands, you were panting. This is because you were not paying attention to the breath." I said, "Xu Yusheng once told me that there must be opening and closing coordinated with the breath. At that time I disregarded his teaching. Nor did I pursue him to ask how to find that coordination. Furthermore, I was not aware that push-hands also has opening and closing which must be similarly coordinated with the breath."

Master Wang continued, "When you first began to study, I couldn't speak of this kind of movement, because it is too complicated. It is not easy to feel and comprehend. But at this stage in your training, you must devote your effort to synchronizing opening and closing with the breath." He then proceeded to point out some examples from the form. For instance, ward-off and press are "opening". Roll-back and push are "closing".

From that time on, I began to search for opening and closing movements whenever I practiced the form. After several days I thought I had gotten it. I practiced "Grasp the Sparrow's Tail" while Master Wang observed. Master Wang said with a laugh, "No need to continue. Your opening is not opening; your closing is not closing." At that time, he had a folding fan in his hand. As he waved the fan, flicking it open and closed, he asked, "How is this opening and closing produced?" I said, "It is produced by the motion of your hand." He shook his head and pointed to the button that held the ribs of the fan together, saying, "Only if you have this thing is it possible to open and close." Then he pointed to the door of the house, saying, "It is just like this door--which must have a hinge in order to open and close. You haven't yet discovered this pivot, so naturally your opening is not opening, your closing is not closing." I asked, "Where is the pivot?" He replied, "This is something you yourself must find. If I tell you, it would be of no use."

Because of this "pivot" I immersed myself in study and practice for more than a month. I thoroughly familiarized myself with the theories concerning Taijiquan. The result was a sudden insight--I realized that the pivot is in the waist. Thereupon I began again to search for "opening" and "closing". In order to bring the form more in harmony with my realization, I changed many of the linkage points between the postures. Later I felt that within each movement there are several openings and closings, all of which must coordinate with the breathing. I spent more and more time refining the movements.

At this time, since Master Wang was teaching at Hunan University, it was not easy to meet. After half a year I chanced upon him and excitedly began to demonstrate for him. He smiled and nodded his head, saying, "Although you are not at the heart of it, you are not far! You only know that the control is in the waist, but you have overlooked the word 'between' in the saying, 'The meaning and source of life is between the kidneys [here, kidneys means waist],' and you have skipped over the word 'middle' in the saying, 'You must at all times keep the mind in the middle of the waist.' You must understand that these two words show the location of the 'life meridian' of Taijiquan. From these two sayings we can also see from whence comes the name 'Taijiquan'. If you are unable to find this, then you will not find 'central equilibrium' among the Thirteen Postures. Moreover, how will you understand the principle of 'When you move, everything moves. When you are still, everything is still.'? It is true that this theory is quite abstruse and not easy to grasp. And it is even more difficult to actually experience in the body. If one speaks of this to beginners, it is not only of no benefit, but, to the contrary, it would cause them to be skeptical and disparaging. Therefore the ancients did not lightly or easily pass on their knowledge. It is not that they were scared of people knowing, but that they were scared of people not knowing." When I heard this profound instruction, I was so grateful that I felt like crying.

The theories and experiences which I have shared above are, I feel, the most precious cultural heritage to be gleaned from our people's physical education and exercises. I felt that I should present this openly to the public. There are many people practicing Taijiquan and not a few books on the subject. However, there are still very few who have written specifically and systematically on the theory of push-hands. So I have written this essay as a reference and study guide for all who love Taijiquan

* * * * *
Xiang Kairen was a writer of martial arts novels and also had an opportunity to study with many of the noted teachers of his day, especially with the Wu and Yang families.

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